Carcinogen tobacco smoke: cancer of the lung, mouth, throat, oesophagus, bladder, pancreas.
Carcinogen asbestos: mesothelioma.
Virus/bacteria. Hepatitis B & C can increase the risk of liver cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) can lead to abnormalities in the cervical and genetic cells that may become cancerous after several years.
Bacteria Helicobacter pylori infects the stomach lining and eventually leads to inflammation and increased risk of cancer.
Eating too much high-fat foods is thought to contribute to the risk of cancer.
Lack of exercise.
Over indulgence in alcohol and obesity has strong links with cancer, such as colorectal cancer.
Source: Dr Nor Ashkin Mokhtar, “What causes cancer?”, Star2F4life, Sunday star 12, June 2011.